In October 2021, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation approached our team to undertake a project intending to improve the understanding of the relationship of structural racism in the justice system to health and well-being. To accomplish these objectives, we assembled a diverse and multidisciplinary team to conduct two research tasks: (1) a comprehensive literature review and (2) more than 130 interviews with policy, research, lived experience, and practice experts. A major conclusion by our team was that researchers have documented the existence of racial disparities throughout the system, but at the same time there is little evaluation on what works to reduce such disparities.